Quarries in Austin and Waco Texas: What They Produce

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Quarries in Austin and Waco Texas: What They Produce


February 24, 2023


Table of Contents

1. What Are Quarries and What Do They Do?

2. What Are the Most Common Materials Found in Texas Quarries?

3. What Are Sand and Gravel Quarries?

4. Fill Materials

5. Limestone Materials

6. River Rock Materials

7. What does Twisted Nail do?

What Are Quarries and What Do They Do?

In general terms, a quarry is a mining operation whose purpose is to extract raw material from the Earth for use or processing. Specific to Twisted Nail, an aggregate quarry is a quarry variation used to extract stones, rock, dirt, sand, and other aggregates that will be repurposed into building materials. Aggregate quarries belong to a subgroup of quarries called open pit mines. These mines are open to the earth’s surface and do not function below the ground, all activity is performed above ground. While there are many types of quarries that supply a wide range of products, aggregate quarries exist to dig up and process any stone-related materials that are used in construction. Texas has many quarries in general but has a significant number of aggregate quarries when compared to other states.

What Are the Most Common Materials Found in Texas Quarries?

The most common quarry type in Texas is the aggregate quarry, which specializes in stone, gravel, sand, and fill dirt. While these quarries are similar to like-kind quarries in other states, Texas has a large number of quarries that make construction aggregates readily available in most regions of the state. To further categorize these aggregate quarries, we can break down the types of aggregate they produce into these main categories: sand, fill, rock, and stone. 

  • The most common quarry type in Texas is aggregate quarry.
  • Specializes in stone, gravel, sand, and fill dirt.
  • The abundance of quarries in Texas for construction aggregates.
  • Main types of aggregates: sand, fill, rock, stone.

What Are Sand and Gravel Quarries?

Simply put, sand and gravel quarries are mines that are purposed for extracting sand and gravel from the Earth. While a quarry can be a mixture of sand, gravel, rock, and stone it is more common for a quarry to specialize. Sand and gravel quarries specialize in loose aggregates like various types of construction rock, sand, and fill dirt materials. In Central Texas, these quarries produce two main types of rock: river rock and limestone. Both river rock and limestone quarries will also produce select fill, common fill, washed sand, and various construction rocks ranging from crusher fines, 3/8”-1” rock, 2”-6” bull rock, and 6”-36” rip rap. Some materials are much more common, such as common fill, pea gravel, sand, and top soil; however, some materials, like silica sand and #57 rock, are exceedingly rare and often require import from other regions of the state. Application of these materials can be varied and the available use-cases are nearly endless. Most commercial projects will require a combination of select fill, state spec road base, ¾”-1” rock (#57 Rock), and rip rap with some projects requiring specialty materials depending on the projects requirements. For residential projects, the most commonly used materials include flexbase, pea gravel, 1” river rock, oversized river rock, common fill, and top soil.

  • Sand and gravel quarries extract materials from the Earth to use in construction.
  • Central Texas quarries focus on river rock, limestone, select fill, common fill, washed sand, and construction rocks.
  • Some materials are more common while others like silica sand and #57 rocks are rare and typically imported.
  • Diverse applications in commercial and residential projects:
  • Commercial: road base, rip rap, specialty materials.
  • Residential: flex base, river rock, topsoil, etc.

Fill Materials

Common Fill and Select Fill

Fill dirt is available in two main types: common fill and select fill. While both are made of a mixture of sand and clay, common fill is not bound by any testing metrics and can be delivered as any combination of the two materials. Select fill, however, implies that the material is tested and will conform to a standard composition of sand and clay. Common fill is an affordable option for many smaller residential projects, such as building an RV pad, but would not be a good material to use where long-term stability is a concern, such as a new home build. For long-term performance contractors and homeowners should defer to select fill, which will have an approved consistency and will perform better over time. 

  • What is fill dirt? Common fill, select fill.
  • What is common fill? Sand and clay mix, no testing metrics.
  • What is select fill? Tested, adheres to standard sand and clay composition.
  • A common fill is affordable and great for small residential projects.
  • Select fill is recommended for stability and better long-term performance.


Topsoil is considered a category of fill dirt and is used in areas seeking to cultivate plant life, such as gardens or lawns. It is placed above all other fill dirt to help nourish the land, but can also be used on its own. Topsoil is a popular choice for landscaping projects. 

  • Topsoil is a type of fill dirt used mainly for gardening and landscaping.
  • It is placed over other fill dirt or used on its own to nurture plant growth and enhance landscapes.

Silica Sand

Silica sand is exceedingly rare in Texas, so is much more expensive than other types of sand. However, while rare, it is still possible to source from within the state. Silica sand comes in a beautiful white color that is the result of quartz being broken down through erosion. Because of its price, it is most often used in specialty industrial projects as well as artificial beaches, golf courses, and for filtration. 

  • Silica sand is rare in Texas, making it costly compared to other sands.
  • When sourced from within the state, it's prized for its white color and used in specialty industrial projects, artificial beaches, golf courses, and filtration. 

Washed Sand

Washed sand, also called concrete sand, is sand that has been processed through a series of screening and washing to remove impurities before being used for construction purposes. Washed sand is used in concrete applications as an additive to make concrete, for walkways, in golf courses, pool construction, patio builds, and other leveling projects. The material comes in an off-white color and is a key ingredient in concrete production, along with a coarse aggregate, cement, and water. 

  • Washed sand, also known as concrete sand, is purified through screening and washing for construction.
  • Utilized in concrete, golf courses, pools, patios, and leveling.

Limestone Materials

Limestone Base (State Spec or Flexbase)

Most construction projects in Texas utilize limestone base in some capacity. Base is a mixture of rock and dirt (fines) that hardens after getting wet. The material composition can vary. Limestone flexbase is often used in residential projects such as country roads, driveways, or as pads for a shop or RV. Because flexbase does not require testing it can come in unpredictable compositions, with some batches delivered with more rock and others with more fines. State spec base, however, is regulated to a very specific combination and should always be delivered with a consistent composition. This composition is defined by the state and allows the material to be used in commercial applications. The material is widely available in Texas and is often found to be one of the cheaper material options available. 

  • Limestone base is widely used in Texas construction.
  • The base is a mix of rock and fines that solidifies when wet.
  • Limestone flexbase is used for residential projects.
  • State spec base is regulated, consistent composition for commercial use.
  • This is an affordable option as it is abundant in Texas construction.

Crusher Fines

Crusher fines are a budget material that are a byproduct of the crushing process limestone must go through. Crusher fines are small in size, ranging from dust to 3/8” in diameter, and can function similar to road base depending on the materials composition. While not recommended for most commercial projects, crusher fines can be an excellent alternative to road base for non-foundation residential projects that are budget conscious. The material can be an excellent choice for country roads, pathways, driveways, RV pads or other casual projects requiring a little stability. 

  • Crusher fines are cost-effective and a byproduct of limestone crushing.
  • Its small size, dust to 3/8” diameter is comparable to road base.
  • Suitable for non-foundation residential projects.
  • Great alternative for budget-conscious projects like pathways, driveways, and country roads.

Crushed Rock

Crushed rock is a foundational aggregate in almost all construction projects. Crushed rock can come in untested and tested variations, with untested materials not conforming to any state specifications and tested versions conforming to very specific sieve tests to ensure uniformity in the material being delivered. This type of aggregate will range in size and can be anywhere from ¼” to 2” in size. Two common terms associated with crushed rock are screened and washed, referring to the material being processed through a screen (and therefore all non-conforming sizes filtered out) and washed referring to the material being cleaned of any sediment that is attached to the rocks after being mined. The popularity of crushed rock in construction uses can make this material very difficult to find and very expensive to purchase. ¾” Rock – 1” Rock, otherwise known as #57 rock, is an excellent example of this. This size rock, particularly in the washed variant, is used in almost all commercial earthwork projects and is a required additive for concrete production. The material is often easy to find in some capacity, but will frequently need to be imported if the project is not flexible on size or washed/unwashed requirements.  

  • Crushed rock is essential for construction projects.
  • There are untested and tested types; tested conforms to sieve tests.
  • Size varies between ¼” to 2”.
  • Popular option but can be scarce and costly.
  • Availability might require importing for specific project needs.

Bull Rock

Bull Rock is limestone that is a step up in size from crushed rock, typically ranging from 2” in size to 6” in size. This rock is frequently used as a filter material or as a stabilizer on construction projects. The most commonly available bull rock is a 3”x5” rock, aka 3x5 or 3 by 5, and is used to create a stable entrance on construction projects. The material is incredibly durable and will allow heavy machinery to easily pass over. 

  • Bull Rock is larger limestone than crushed rock.
  • Sizes range between 2” to 6”.
  • Used for filtration and construction stability.
  • Durable for heavy machinery.


Riprap (Rip Rap) refers to limestone that is a further step-up in size, typically ranging from 6” to 36” in diameter. These rocks are very large in size and are typically used in erosion control and for stability purposes. Riprap can also be used around culverts, bridges, drains, and other banked slopes that run the risk of washing away in heavy rain or when exposed to heavy waters. 

  • Riprap is large limestone ranging from 6” to 36”.
  • Great for erosion control and stability.
  • Used near culverts, bridges, drains, slopes.
  • Prevents washing away in heavy rain or water.

River Rock Materials

Pea Gravel

Pea gravel is made of smaller rocks (<3/8” diameter). The coloring of the material depends on the root source material: limestone is available in varying shades of tan and white while river rock is available in a mixture of tan, red, brown, and other natural colors. Pea gravel is a popular choice for landscaping, playgrounds, walking paths, driveways, patios, gardens, and other areas that are more focused on appearance rather than utility. 

  • Pea gravel is small rocks <3/8”.
  • Color varies based on the source. Limestone is tan or white, while river rock is tan, red, or brown.
  • Used for landscaping, playgrounds, paths, driveways, and gardens.
  • Aesthetic focus rather than utility.

Screened River Rock

Screened River Rock refers to a river rock that has been filtered with a series of sieves so that the final product is a consistent size range. These rocks can be various sizes, depending on the quarry, and typically range from 3/8” to 2” in size. Screened river rock can also come washed or unwashed, depending on the quarry capabilities, which refers to if the rock has been cleaned of any natural sediment attached to the rocks when mined. Screened rock, particularly the 1” #57 rock variety, is very popular in construction projects and is a popular additive to concrete. The material is excellent for landscaping purposes, but is not always a great fit for a driveway, walkway, or otherwise project requiring stability. The material’s round edges prevent any type of lock-in and allows the material to wiggle out of the way as pressure is applied. 

  • Screened River Rock is sieved for consistent size.
  • Sizes range from 3/8” to 2”.
  • Available in washed or unwashed options.
  • Popular in construction.
  • Used in landscaping, not ideal for driveways or stability.
  • Rounded edges hinder locking and flexible under pressure.

Oversize River Rock

Oversize River Rock refers to a river rock that is larger than 2” in diameter. Oversize river rock should be produced at any quarry that is capable of mining river rock, but will not always be available in a washed variety. Because of the rocks’ large size, it can be rather tough on washing and screening equipment, meaning that a quarry will need specialty equipment capable of handling the rocks larger size. This rock is almost exclusively used for landscaping purposes.

  • Oversize River Rock is >2” diameter.
  • Produced in capable quarries and not always washed.
  • Specialized equipment needed due to the large size.
  • Primarily for landscaping due to its large size.

What does Twisted Nail do?

We at Twisted Nail Sand & Gravel provide an easy, efficient way for our customers to have their aggregates sourced and delivered. As experts in both the trucking and aggregate sides of your project, we can provide trucking for the materials that you have sourced or can provide fully landed quotes by sourcing the materials that you need. When it comes to quarries and to material delivery, we offer a combination of pit-to-plant, pit-to-jobsite, and pit-to-consumer hauling; this means that no matter where you need aggregate, Twisted Nail and our team of expert owner operators can deliver. We operate in and around Waco, Austin, and Bryan, Texas. We look forward to hearing back from you and are confident that we are the aggregate solution to ensure your job is on time and on budget!

  • Twisted Nail Sand & Gravel sources and delivers aggregates efficiently.
  • Their expertise is in trucking and aggregates, offering sourcing and delivery.
  • Various hauling options like pit-to-plant, pit-to-job site, pit-to-consumer.
  • Service areas: Waco, Austin, Bryan, Texas.


An end dumps carry weight depends heavily on the specific road regulations, the power unit weight, and the composition of the trailer. A steel trailer, typically referred to as a Round Bottom, will be heavier and will have a payload of approximately 21 to 23 tons. By contrast, an aluminum end dump is much lighter and can carry anywhere from 23-28 tons, with some set-ups being able to approach 30-ton payloads. 

End dumps are typically loaded by heavy machinery, such as a front-end loader or excavator, or by a series of conveyor belts. End dumps are top load trailers. An owner-operator with an end dump trailer will uncover the trailer via an electric tarp switch in the cab. With the trailer uncovered, the heavy machinery is free to load from the top of the trailer, being careful to evenly distribute the material. Once loaded, the owner-operator flips the tarp switch, covers the load, and continues their run.  

There are several different types of hydraulic lifts that are usually part of dump trailers. These include telescopic, dual-piston, and scissor lifts, among others. Most dump trailers use hydraulics to automatically lift the dump box and unload the materials in a quick, seamless action.

An end dump is an excellent investment for owner operators or construction companies that transport bulk aggregate on a frequent basis. Depending on your needs, a steel or aluminum end dump will ensure that you are able to reliable keep your customers jobsites and stockpiles full. 

Depending on market timing, a typical aluminum end dump will range between $15,000 to $70,000+, with steel round bottoms priced around $10,000-$50,000+. These trailers are also offered for rent or lease, with trailers available for around $850-$2,000 per month. When renting or leasing, it is typical for all repairs to be the responsibility of the renting owner operator. 


Flex base can be an excellent choice for a driveway but is not often used as a primary input in TXDOT construction. Flex base is best suited for farm roads, driveways, RV pads, and for other foundations that will not receive heavy traffic. Flex base is cheaper than most alternative options, such as asphalt or base that meets TXDOT specifications. Additionally, once set and compacted, a flex base road or driveway is cheaper and easier to maintain.

Yes, road base and flex base are the same material family. That said, the differentiating factor is typically the testing results of each material. When shopping for material, it is important to identify exactly what type of material you are buying. Retailers will categorize Base as a broad category and can leave identification to consumers, which is challenging and confusing. In general, if a retailer is selling a Road Base it can be assumed that the material is of higher construction quality than flex base, meaning it will have a wider range of approved uses. However, some vendors will sell Flex Base as a Road Base; this makes it important to understand if the material you are purchasing is a true Flex Base, is ‘Spec 247’, or is TXDOT approved. With each increase in quality comes an increase in cost, so it is important to identify which material will best suit the needs of your project.

Flex Base is a mixture of loose aggregate and coarse aggregate, can be a wide range of color based on source location, and is composed of materials ranging from dirt to rock that are 1”-3” in size. Most Flex Base, particularly around Central Texas, will range from tan to brown, will consist of a dirt material and rocks that range from 1” to 2” in diameter. There are specialty materials that will include rocks up to 3” in size, but these are typically reserved for heavy construction projects.

Any driveway’s depth should be at least 5” to ensure structural integrity and better load capacity. For road base in particular, experts recommend a thickness of 6-8”.


Yes, PUG Base is suitable for both residential and commercial applications. Its versatility allows it to be used in a wide range of projects, including residential homes, commercial buildings, and even infrastructure projects. Its properties, such as strength, durability, and water resistance, make it an excellent choice for various construction applications.

PUG Base generally does not require any special maintenance. However, regular cleaning and inspection are recommended to ensure its longevity. Additionally, addressing any cracks or damage promptly and applying sealants as needed can help maintain its performance and durability.

PUG Base is not typically recycled or reused in its original form. However, it can be crushed and used as a base or sub-base material in future construction projects. Additionally, some recycling facilities may have processes in place to extract and repurpose certain components of PUG Base for other applications.

Yes, there are environmental benefits to using PUG Base. PUG Base is typically made from natural materials, reducing the need for extraction of non-renewable resources. It also has a lower carbon footprint compared to materials like concrete, as the production process of PUG Base emits fewer greenhouse gasses.

Yes, PUG Base can be customized to meet specific project requirements. It can be mixed with various additives or stabilizers to enhance certain properties such as strength, flexibility, or water resistance. The proportions of the materials can also be adjusted to achieve the desired consistency and performance for a particular project.

PUG Base can be suitable for areas with extreme weather conditions when properly installed and maintained. Its low permeability helps resist water damage and freeze-thaw cycles, making it suitable for areas with cold climates. However, it is important to consider factors like drainage, slope, and appropriate surface treatments to ensure optimal performance in areas with heavy rainfall or other extreme weather conditions.

Yes, PUG Base can be used for various applications beyond roads and driveways. It is commonly used as a base material for pathways, sidewalks, parking lots, and even as a foundation for buildings. Its strength, stability, and durability make it a versatile choice for a range of construction projects where a solid base is required.

Yes, the use of PUG Base in construction projects is often governed by local regulations and standards. These regulations may specify requirements for material composition, compaction methods, thickness guidelines, and quality control measures to ensure the safe and reliable use of PUG Base in construction applications.

Yes, there are specific considerations for preparing the site before installing PUG Base. The site should be properly excavated, removing any organic material, debris, or unsuitable soil. The subgrade should be compacted and leveled to provide a stable base for the PUG Base material, ensuring proper drainage and preventing future settlement issues.

Yes, PUG Base can be used in areas with heavy traffic or high load-bearing requirements. It is known for its excellent compressive strength, making it suitable for applications that require strong support, such as roads, parking lots, and industrial areas.


A freight brokerage acts as a valuable intermediary in the transportation industry, connecting customers with qualified owner-operators to move cargo between locations. In Texas, a reputable freight broker will market your cargo to carriers, ensuring competitive pricing and service. They handle all logistics, ensuring your cargo is transported efficiently on a flatbed tractor-trailer. By leveraging their expertise, you can enjoy convenience and peace of mind knowing that your cargo is being transported according to your preferences. 

Experienced freight brokerages have a vast network of equipment at their disposal, allowing them to handle a wide range of freight, including heavy hauls and other specialty loads. They can facilitate the transportation of various items, from construction and landscaping materials to farming vehicles and equipment. Additionally, freight brokers can handle dry and refrigerated goods, hazardous materials, live animals, and virtually anything else you need to move from point A to point B.

Some of the benefits that come with hiring a freight brokerage include expertise and someone to take care of the logistics of finding the right carrier to handle your flatbed cargo. Brokerage agreements allow you to sit back while brokers handle permits, insurance, negotiating rates, and other paperwork. In addition, brokers provide advice to help you navigate the complexities of shipping. 

Several aspects influence the cost of transporting your cargo on a flatbed trailer truck, including distance, weight, size, type, and market conditions. Based on these factors, a freight brokerage will provide you with a quote, though the ultimate cost may fluctuate depending on the actual weight and size of the cargo, as well as any special pick-up, delivery, or handling instructions.

To track your cargo during transport on a flatbed, you can contact the drivers assigned to your shipment for updates. Unfortunately, if there are no tracking capabilities available, direct communication with the drivers remains the primary method of tracking your cargo's progress and obtaining status updates.


A quarry is a type of mine called an open pit mine, which is open to the earth’s surface rather than situated below the ground. Quarries, Texas quarries in particular, are used to extract raw materials such as rocks, dirt, and sand that will be repurposed into building materials.

Quarry direct trucking streamlines the delivery process to bring you the materials you need, where you need them, when you need them. The three options for direct trucking include pit-to-plant, pit-to-job site, and pit-to-consumer. 

The Austin and Waco quarries boast an impressive range of high-quality aggregate materials. The main materials found are river rock, limestone, granite, and recycled materials. The specific materials are offering in the following popular formats: Flex Base, State Spec Road Base, Screened Rock, #57 Rock, Bull Rock, Rip Rap, Concrete Sand, Washed Sand, Masonry Sand, Manufactured Sand, Select Fill, Common Fill, Top Soil, Pit Run, Recycled Concrete and Asphalt Millings. These aggregates encompass diverse varieties like limestone, river rock, granite, sand, fill dirt, topsoil, recycled concrete, and recycled asphalt, catering to a wide array of construction needs.

Some of the major industries which rely on materials produced in quarries include construction, transportation, and manufacturing. Aggregates such as sand, gravel, and rock are used to build roads, pathways, gardens, and runways, as well as buildings and their foundations. Certain quarries also produce minerals like clay and sand which are used in various manufacturing processes.

With all the extractions that happen at quarries in Texas, environmental and safety concerns include pollution, erosion, and worker safety. The most common forms of pollution are noise, water, and dust/air pollution, and quarry operations can also erode the soil, which affects local wildlife populations and water quality. Finally, workers may be put at risk because of the heavy machinery and blasting involved, or by being exposed to pollution and hazardous materials which can lead to health problems. However, quarry operators implement various sustainable measures, such as reclamation plans and water conservation, to mitigate their negative environmental impact.


The most common stone categories in Central Texas are Limestone, River Rock, Granite, and Recycled Materials. Limestone and Granite are relatively interchangeable, but have different properties. Limestone is abundant, granite is restricted to only certain areas of Texas; Limestone is soft, granite is very durable. River Rock is a naturally occurring rock that is multicolored and smooth; it is sometimes, but not often, interchangeable with limestone or granite. Recycled materials included recycled crushed concrete and asphalt millings, which are produced by processing reclaimed concrete and asphalt. 

These materials are offered in a variety of types and sizes. The most popular variations, for both commercial and residential projects, includes flex base, spec road base, screened rock, bull rock and rip rap. Flex base is an untested, unregulated, mixture of dirt and rock that combines to make an acceptable pad or road. Spec road base is the same as flex base, but meets consistency criteria set by the state or local government, and as such is better for road and structural foundation construction. Screened rock can come in a variety of sizes, but is typically between ⅜” and 2” in diameter. Bull Rock is a size up from screened rock and is typically 2” to 6” in diameter. Rip Rap is yet another step up and is offered from 6” to 36”+ in diameter. 

Quarry operators and anyone who works with construction stone must comply with local, state, and federal environmental and safety regulations. These regulations include worker safety and wildlife protection, as well as limits on practices related to air emissions, water quality, and land use.

From building sidewalks to paving roads to constructing buildings, construction stone is used for a variety of commercial purposes in Texas. While each type of stone may be better suited for one project than another, many are versatile. Other common applications include building driveways, railroads, and drainage systems.

Some types of construction stone, such as washed #57 rock, are not as readily available as other types, such as unwashed #57 rock, and may have to be imported in order to find a material that fits the contractor requirements. Rarer types  of material can get expensive because of the high demand or the associated transportation costs. That said, there are usually alternatives to each type of construction stone, though they may not be as durable or effective as their counterparts. Other challenges associated with using construction stone in commercial projects include sustainability and design limitations.

When choosing construction stones for commercial projects in Texas, several key factors come into play. Consider the desired color, texture, and durability, as they play a crucial role in the stone's appearance and long-term maintenance. Additionally, factors like erosion resistance and weather exposure should be assessed to ensure the stone meets the necessary durability requirements. For sustainability, explore options like locally sourced or recycled stone. Finally, remember that professional testing is essential to meet state specifications and ensure material quality for commercial buildings.


The appropriate size of rip rap for your erosion control project depends on the velocity of the water and the desired level of protection. Generally, larger rip rap is used for higher velocities, while smaller rip rap is suitable for lower velocities.

When installing rip rap, it is recommended to place a geotextile fabric as a base layer to prevent soil erosion and promote proper drainage. The rip rap should be carefully placed, ensuring interlocking and sufficient coverage to provide effective erosion control.

Yes, rip rap can be used for shoreline stabilization in bodies of water. It helps absorb wave energy, protect against erosion, and maintain the integrity of the shoreline.

Rip rap can be used in combination with other materials such as geotextiles or concrete for specific construction projects, providing enhanced stability and erosion control.

Before the delivery and installation of rip rap, the site should be properly prepared by removing vegetation, debris, and loose soil. The grade should be graded and compacted to provide a stable foundation for the rip rap.

When handling and installing rip rap, it is important to follow proper safety precautions. This includes using personal protective equipment, ensuring proper lifting techniques, and avoiding unstable or dangerous areas.

While rip rap itself is not typically recycled or reused, it can be removed and repurposed in other projects if the material is in good condition and suitable for reuse.

When using rip rap in environmentally sensitive areas, considerations should be given to minimize disturbance, preserve natural habitats, and adhere to any regulatory requirements related to environmental protection.

The cost of rip rap can vary depending on factors such as the type, size, and quantity needed, as well as the distance of the project site from the source. It is advisable to obtain quotes from different suppliers to compare costs.

Yes, PUG Base can be used in areas with heavy traffic or high load-bearing requirements. It is known for its excellent compressive strength, making it suitable for applications that require strong support, such as roads, parking lots, and industrial areas.


To determine the quantity of fill dirt needed for your project, measure the length, width, and desired depth of the area to be filled. Multiply these measurements together to calculate the volume of fill dirt required. It is advisable to add a contingency factor to account for compaction and settling.

Yes, fill dirt can be used for both residential and commercial applications. It is commonly used for foundation backfill, landscaping projects, site grading, and other construction purposes in various settings.

The recommended depth for placing fill dirt depends on the specific application and desired outcome. In general, it is important to consider factors such as the load-bearing requirements, compaction capabilities, and the intended use of the filled area to determine the appropriate depth.

Fill dirt can be used for grading or leveling uneven surfaces. By adding and compacting the fill dirt in layers, it helps create a more even and stable surface for further construction or landscaping activities.

When using fill dirt in areas prone to heavy rainfall or flooding, proper drainage considerations should be made. This may include ensuring proper slope and contouring, installing drainage systems, or using specific fill materials that promote water infiltration and drainage.

Common and Select Fill are technically the same material, but at varying levels of clay. Fill is tested by measuring the % of sand vs clay mixed into the material. Common fill refers to material that is not tested or does not pass testing. This material will either have too much clay or too much sand to be used for structural projects. Select fill refers to material that meets regulation regarding the mix of clay and sand. This material is higher quality and is suitable for foundations and other structural projects. 

Using fill dirt can have environmental benefits, such as reducing the need for disposal of excess soil and minimizing the extraction of natural resources. Proper sourcing and handling of fill dirt can also promote land reclamation and conservation efforts.

Sourcing fill dirt from a local supplier in Texas offers advantages such as reduced transportation costs, shorter lead times, and the ability to select materials that are well-suited to the local soil conditions and requirements.

Fill dirt can be used for creating embankments or building up slopes. By layering and compacting the fill dirt, it helps reinforce the slope of embankment and provides stability against erosion or slope failure.

Recommended techniques for spreading and leveling fill dirt include using grading equipment, such as bulldozers or skid steers, to evenly distribute the material and achieve the desired slope or contour. Proper compaction techniques should also be employed to ensure stability.


Limestone provides several important advantages. Firstly, it's easily accessible, so getting the limestone you need shouldn't be a problem. Moreover, limestone is reasonably durable. While it might not be the absolute toughest material out there, it still possesses fairly strong properties.

Limestone is hardly ever reused or repurposed. It's used in specific ways for business purposes, and it's simpler to achieve those goals with new limestone. Also, the expenses of extracting, moving, recycling, and bringing back limestone are much higher than using new material.

Limestone has some limitations and potential downsides:

  • Limestone is a dusty material. While great for driveways, it will always have some level of dust present. Washed products are available in some locations, and can be imported anywhere, but often are more expensive than unwashed as a result of availability. 
  • Prone to weathering due to age and use. Regular maintenance is required to preserve longevity and appearance. 
  • Professional set up is required for limestone to perform its best. Limestone is flexible and can produce passable results to results passing state specs. 
  • Less variety offered when it comes to appearance, for the most part limestone will look the same unless it is mixed with other materials.

In regions prone to severe weather conditions, limestone may not be the most ideal selection. Although limestone is typically resilient, it can be vulnerable to weathering and erosion when subjected to harsh environmental elements. Factors like extreme temperature fluctuations, heavy rainfall, and freeze-thaw cycles can expedite its degradation. In such areas, it might be more advisable to consider alternative construction materials, such as Limestone Rip Rap, Bull Rock, and screed rock which offer enhanced resistance to weathering and can better withstand the challenging conditions.

Absolutely! Limestone is versatile and can be used in both commercial and residential projects. It offers a wide range of applications, including farm roads, driveways, road foundations, shop foundations, building foundations, drainage, and erosion control. Additionally, precut limestone blocks can be used in landscaping designs needing a barrier or in landscape terraforming.

Limestone offers several ecological advantages:

  • Limestone has a long lifespan with regular maintenance, resulting in reduced material waste over time.
  • Due to the availability of limestone, construction projects can be situated closer to where the rocks are sourced. This cuts down on the pollution from transporting materials, especially when compared to other materials of similar performance.


#57 Rock undergoes screening to create 0.75" to 1.00" diameter rocks. For commercial use, it's usually sold washed. Screening and washing make it pricier than other options like gravel or pebbles. Often, 57 Rock is imported due to commercial demand as it is not always available locally.

No, there are no ecological advantages linked when using 57 Rock. It is usually chosen based on its physical and structural properties rather than its environmental benefits.

When considering ordering #57 Rock, there are key points to keep in mind:

  • Is washing of the material required?
  • Should the material be crushed limestone, or is river rock a suitable replacement?

Asking these questions will assist our sales team in recommending the ideal material for your project. We frequently have alternative options that align with project requirements, leading to time and cost savings.

Yes, 57 Rock is generally suitable for areas with harsh weather conditions. Its durability and ability to withstand extreme weather, such as freezing temperatures and heavy rainfall, make it a preferred choice. However, proper installation and maintenance are still crucial to ensure optimal performance in such conditions.

Yes, 57 Rock can have applications beyond construction and landscaping. It can be used as a base material for roads, driveways, and parking areas. Additionally, it can be utilized for erosion control, drainage systems, and the manufacturing of concrete or asphalt. Its versatility makes it 

suitable for various industrial and infrastructure purposes.

Using 57 Rock offers several benefits over other construction or landscaping materials. It provides excellent drainage, stability, and load-bearing capacity. It is durable, long-lasting, and resistant to weathering.


The advantages of using Recycled Concrete over other building materials include:

  • Environmental benefits: Recycling concrete reduces the need for new aggregateproduction and prevents the old material from ending up in landfills, thus conserving resources and reducing waste.
  • Cost-effective: Using recycled concrete can be more economical compared to using new aggregate, as it eliminates the need for raw materials extraction and reduces disposal costs.
  • Versatility: Recycled concrete can be used in various construction projects, including highway expansion, parking lots, driveways, and more, making it a versatile material.
  • Durability: Recycled concrete can provide a strong and durable base for structures and withstand heavy loads, making it suitable for applications such as roadways and parking areas.

While using Recycled Concrete offers several advantages, there are potential limitations and downsides to consider. One such limitation is the variability in quality. Recycled concrete may exhibit inconsistent strength and performance due to variations in the source material. The availability of recycled concrete can also be limited, depending on the location and the availability of suitable sources for recycling.

Yes, Recycled Concrete can be used for various applications beyond buildings and roadways. It is often utilized in projects such as landscaping, retaining walls, erosion control, and as a base material for pavements in parking lots, sidewalks, and bike paths. Its versatility makes it suitable for diverse construction and infrastructure needs.

Utilizing Recycled Concrete offers notable environmental advantages. Through the process of recycling old concrete, the demand for new aggregate production is reduced, leading to the conservation of natural resources and energy. Furthermore, it significantly diminishes the volume of concrete waste being disposed of in landfills, thus alleviating the environmental impact. Moreover, it plays a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions associated with concrete production, thereby contributing to sustainability endeavors. It is important to note that by using these methods, we’re actively taking steps to decrease the carbon footprint that comes along with concrete production.


Advantages of using River Rock over other landscaping materials include:

  • Aesthetically pleasing: River rock comes in various colors and textures, making it visually appealing for landscaping and outdoor decoration.
  • Excellent drainage: River rock has superior drainage properties, making it ideal for gardens and areas with moisture exposure.
  • Versatile use: River rock can be used for outdoor staircases, patios, border walls, walkways, gardens, and filling holes.
  • Quarry direct trucking: Twisted Nail offers convenient delivery options for river rock materials, ensuring they arrive when and where needed.

River Rock provides excellent drainage, which can help prevent water pooling and soil erosion. Additionally, using river rock as a decorative material reduces the need for water-intensive lawns, promoting water conservation.

  • Limited availability, only located near rivers 
  • Larger river rocks may be less common and more expensive
  • May need to be imported if supply is low, increasing the cost
  • Does not offer much insulation value compared to other materials
  • Can become hot under direct sunlight, potentially affecting plants and surrounding areas

River rock can be suitable for areas with extreme weather conditions, but it may have some limitations. While it is resistant to weathering and erosion, extreme cold or freezing temperatures can cause the rock to crack. Additionally, in hot climates, river rock can absorb and radiate heat, potentially affecting nearby plants or areas. It's important to consider local weather conditions and potential impacts before using river rock in areas prone to extreme weather.

Yes, river rock can be used for applications other than landscaping. It is commonly used in the production of concrete and has industrial uses. It can also be utilized for outdoor staircases, border walls, filling holes, and as a decorative element in various outdoor settings, such as patios and walkways.

River rock may not be the most suitable option for areas with heavy foot traffic or high usage conditions. Its smooth and round shape can make it challenging to walk on, potentially causing instability and discomfort. In such areas, materials that offer better stability and durability, like pavers or concrete, may be more appropriate.

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