Limestone Uses in Construction

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Limestone Uses in Construction


August 23, 2022


Limestone is an often-forgotten yet crucial building material that can be used for anything from giant industrial construction projects to smaller residential renovations. But what makes limestone so important and unique compared to other building materials?

Table of Contents

A Brief History of Limestone in Construction
Benefits of Limestone
Forms Construction Limestone Comes In
Call Twisted Nail for Quarry Direct Limestone Trucking

A Brief History of Limestone in Construction

Recognize any of these famous buildings and structures from around the world?

  • The Great Pyramids of Egypt
  • The Great Sphinx
  • The Parthenon
  • The Lincoln Memorial
  • The Empire State Building
  • The Washington National Cathedral
  • Kingston
  • U.S. Holocaust Memorial
  • The Pentagon

Believe it or not, all of these structures used limestone during their construction. Whether it was a small amount or made up 95% of the structure, limestone proved—and continues to prove—itself as a valuable and long-lasting resource for construction projects everywhere.

Limestone is one of the oldest known building materials and has clearly been used for millennia. Not only has limestone proven to be a weather-resistant and long-lasting material, it has also been found in pockets all over the world. This makes it easy and affordable to utilize for nearly any project.

From asphalt and concrete to glass to even toothpaste, limestone can be used for practically anything. Today, it continues to be one of the most sought-after building materials due to its many benefits.

Benefits of Limestone

For generations, construction experts have agreed that the positives far outweigh the negatives when it comes to limestone. Here’s a list of some of the benefits of using limestone for your next project.

1 - Extremely durable

Limestone is one of the most durable natural building materials in the world. Because of its compact nature, it is also among the strongest materials. With its resistance to most outside stress and long-lasting capabilities, limestone maintains its integrity for centuries—and even millennia, as the Egyptian pyramids and other structures have shown!

2 - Multipurpose

Maybe you’re not building the next Parthenon, but you can still benefit from using limestone with your next house. Some popular ways limestone can be used include:

  • Blocks used in building structures
  • Stone cladding used on walls
  • Retaining walls
  • Tiles and floor paving

One of the most crucial qualities of limestone that makes it so multipurpose is the fact that it can be crushed into different grades and sizes, which allows it to be used in a multitude of ways

3 - Keeps buildings cool

No A/C? No problem. If your next construction project uses limestone—which is an excellent conductor of heat—the interior of the building will remain cooler throughout the hot months. In turn, this helps lower your electricity bills and is even a better choice for the environment.

4 - A versatile material

Color-wise, limestone is extremely versatile and comes in a variety of hues. From off-white to brown, you can find the color that’s right for you—and you can even polish the finished product if you’d like.

Limestone also comes in varying shapes and sizes. Some of the most commonly seen shapes are blocks and bricks because they are easy to make and allow for faster processing of the final material.

Forms Construction Limestone Comes In

At Twisted Nail, we offer some of the most popular forms of limestone, which include crushed rock, crusher fines, rip rap, bull rock, and base.

1 - Crushed Rock

Crushed by machines, crushed rock is artificially manufactured and comes in an angular, jagged form. Limestone is one of the largest produced types of crushed rock and is most often used for landscaping, gardens, and driveways.

2 - Crusher Fines

Crusher fines are a finer form of crushed rock, usually made up of small particles left over from crushed rock. When in limestone form, they are most often used for building natural-looking, yet durable, hiking, biking, and walking trails.

3 - Rip Rap

Rip rap can be used for anything from filling large areas to stabilizing foundations to protecting roads and structures from erosion. It’s part of a category of rocky material that is generally placed along areas that may be exposed to water, such as along shorelines and bridges.

4 - Bull Rock

Bull rock is popular in various landscaping applications, serving as a great protector for flower beds and as a more permanent and durable alternative to mulch. Like limestone in general, bull rock comes in multiple colors, varying from gray to brown to white.

5 - Base

As the name implies, base provides a sturdy foundation, whether as part of the initial steps at the beginning of a project or as part of a finished road or structure. It’s a coarse material that is most often used when building roads or driveways to help promote their longevity. Most often, limestone aggregate is used in concrete and asphalt paving projects when forming the base of the road.

Call Twisted Nail for Quarry Direct Limestone Trucking

With all the benefits that come with limestone, it’s no surprise that it’s one of the most popular building materials. At Twisted Nail, we can help you choose the right limestone for your project and will provide quarry direct trucking, meaning we can haul the limestone straight to your preferred location. Whether you need it delivered to a plant, jobsite, or directly to you, we’ll help your next construction project go seamlessly. If you’re ready to start your next industrial or residential construction project with limestone, contact us today.


An end dumps carry weight depends heavily on the specific road regulations, the power unit weight, and the composition of the trailer. A steel trailer, typically referred to as a Round Bottom, will be heavier and will have a payload of approximately 21 to 23 tons. By contrast, an aluminum end dump is much lighter and can carry anywhere from 23-28 tons, with some set-ups being able to approach 30-ton payloads. 

End dumps are typically loaded by heavy machinery, such as a front-end loader or excavator, or by a series of conveyor belts. End dumps are top load trailers. An owner-operator with an end dump trailer will uncover the trailer via an electric tarp switch in the cab. With the trailer uncovered, the heavy machinery is free to load from the top of the trailer, being careful to evenly distribute the material. Once loaded, the owner-operator flips the tarp switch, covers the load, and continues their run.  

There are several different types of hydraulic lifts that are usually part of dump trailers. These include telescopic, dual-piston, and scissor lifts, among others. Most dump trailers use hydraulics to automatically lift the dump box and unload the materials in a quick, seamless action.

An end dump is an excellent investment for owner operators or construction companies that transport bulk aggregate on a frequent basis. Depending on your needs, a steel or aluminum end dump will ensure that you are able to reliable keep your customers jobsites and stockpiles full. 

Depending on market timing, a typical aluminum end dump will range between $15,000 to $70,000+, with steel round bottoms priced around $10,000-$50,000+. These trailers are also offered for rent or lease, with trailers available for around $850-$2,000 per month. When renting or leasing, it is typical for all repairs to be the responsibility of the renting owner operator. 


Flex base can be an excellent choice for a driveway but is not often used as a primary input in TXDOT construction. Flex base is best suited for farm roads, driveways, RV pads, and for other foundations that will not receive heavy traffic. Flex base is cheaper than most alternative options, such as asphalt or base that meets TXDOT specifications. Additionally, once set and compacted, a flex base road or driveway is cheaper and easier to maintain.

Yes, road base and flex base are the same material family. That said, the differentiating factor is typically the testing results of each material. When shopping for material, it is important to identify exactly what type of material you are buying. Retailers will categorize Base as a broad category and can leave identification to consumers, which is challenging and confusing. In general, if a retailer is selling a Road Base it can be assumed that the material is of higher construction quality than flex base, meaning it will have a wider range of approved uses. However, some vendors will sell Flex Base as a Road Base; this makes it important to understand if the material you are purchasing is a true Flex Base, is ‘Spec 247’, or is TXDOT approved. With each increase in quality comes an increase in cost, so it is important to identify which material will best suit the needs of your project.

Flex Base is a mixture of loose aggregate and coarse aggregate, can be a wide range of color based on source location, and is composed of materials ranging from dirt to rock that are 1”-3” in size. Most Flex Base, particularly around Central Texas, will range from tan to brown, will consist of a dirt material and rocks that range from 1” to 2” in diameter. There are specialty materials that will include rocks up to 3” in size, but these are typically reserved for heavy construction projects.

Any driveway’s depth should be at least 5” to ensure structural integrity and better load capacity. For road base in particular, experts recommend a thickness of 6-8”.

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